This is normally axe number one used to cut down trees and have an extremely sharp thin blade and slowly tapered head so it can cut across the wood grain as deep as possible. To suit this felling axes have 2.5 to 3.5 pound head and a 2 to 3 feet handle. This gives them a good swing length and the force to go through trees. There are a lot of variations to the basic design depending on where it comes from but most will share these characteristics.
Rather than a deep across the grain cut a splitting maul uses a heavy wedge shaped head normally 6 to 8 pounds which deliver a more forceful strike without sticking in the wood and a nearly straight handle used to lever the maul deeper after the initial strike. Mauls also come with a broad butt that can be used to hammer a second splitter through the log.
Named for the large bits and long beards they are traditionally used for hewing logs into beams. These axes allow the user to cut away the rounded edges of a log while creating a relatively flat face. The issue is these axes are dedicated left or right handed tools as dictated by the side of the bevel.